Important Sites of the Indus Valley Civilization - UPSC,PSC,UGCNET,SSC,
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Important Sites of the Indus Valley Civilization

Important Sites of the Indus Valley Civilization
1. Harappa
•Harappa is arranged in Montogomery region of Punjab (Pakistan).
Unearthings at the site have prompted to the accompanying particular discoveries:
• Two lines of six storage facilities with block stages; 12 storehouses together had an indistinguishable zone from the Great  Storage facility at Mohenjodaro.
• Working floors, comprising of columns of round block stages lay toward the south of silos and were implied for sifting grain.
• Evidence of coffi n entombment and burial ground "H" culture.
• The dead were covered in the southern bit of the fortifi ed range, called graveyard R-37.
• Single room garisson huts just underneath the dividers of the fortifications for the workers and assembly line laborers.
• It has been identifi ed with Hari-Yupiya which is specified in the Rigveda.
• Evidence of direct exchange and association with Mesopotamia.
• Discovery of a red sandstone male middle and
• Stone images of female private parts.
• Almost 36% of the aggregate seals uncovered in the Indus Civilization are exhumed from Harappa alone.
• Other disclosures incorporate Bronze picture of an "ekka" (vehicle) and a seal with the representation of the indication of "swastika" on it.
2. Mohenjo-daro
•Also known as the 'Hill of the dead', it lies in Larkana region of Sind (Pakistan). A portion of the Particular discoveries amid the unearthings of Mohenjodaro include:
• A school, a multi-pillared gathering corridor.
• The Great Bath
• An extensive storage facility (the biggest working of Mohenjodaro) which recommends outrageous centralization as the decision specialists must have fi rst brought the agrarian create here and afterward redistributed it.
• A bit of woven cotton alongwith shaft whorls and needles.
• Superficial proof of a steed or an ass.
• A pot-stone section of Mesopotamian starting point.
• Evidence of direct exchange contact with Mesopotamia.
• A bronze moving young lady.
• Evidence of brutal demise of a portion of the occupants (disclosure of human skeletons set up together).
• Times, they never attempted to move to a more secure place. Or maybe, they returned to the first site at whatever point the water table retreated. Nor did they ever attempt to manufacture solid dikes to shield themselves from floods.A seal speaking to Mother Goddess with a plant developing from her womb, and a lady to be yielded by a man with a blade in his grasp.
• A hairy man
• A seal with a photo recommending Pashupati Mahadev.
• This city is additionally an outrageous case of conservatism, as in spite of having been overwhelmed just about nine.
3. Alamgirpur
• The popular Harappan site is viewed as the eastern limit of the indus culture. In spite of the fact that the caverns found here look like those at other Harappan destinations, other  discoveries propose that Alamgirpur created amid the late-Harappan culture.
• The site is exceptional for giving the impression of material on a trough.
4. Kalibangan
•Kalibangan was an essential Harappan city. The word Kalibangan signifies 'dark bangles'. A furrowed field was the most imperative revelation of the early  unearthing . Later unearthing  at Kalibangan made the accompanying particular revelations:
• A wooden wrinkle
• Seven fi re sacrificial stones consecutively on a stage recommending the act of the faction of yield.
• Remains of a huge block divider around both the fortification and the lower town (the second Harappan site after Lothal to have the lower town too walled.
• Bones of a camel.
• The skull of a kid discovered experiencing hydrocephalus.
• A tiled fl oor which bears crossing plans of circles.
• A human head with long oval eyes, thick lower lips, retreating brow and straight pointed nose.
• Evidences of two sorts of entombments:
_ Burials in a rectangular grave and
_ Burials in a round grave.
5. Kot-Diji
Kot-Diji is referred to additional as a pre-Harappan site. It gives the impression of a pre-Harappan invigorated settlement. Houses were made of stone. The remaining parts  of Kot-Diji propose that the city existed in the main portion of the third thousand years B.C. Unearthings at the site recommend that the city was destructed by constrain.
6. Lothal
• Lothal was an essential exchange focus of the Harappan culture. The town arranging in Lothal was unique in relation to that of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The city was isolated into six areas. Every area was based on a wide stage of unripe blocks. Every stage was isolated by a street with width going from 12 feet to 20 feet. Unearthings at Lothal prompted to some particular revelations which include: Remains of rice husk (the main other Harappan city where the rice husk has been found is Rangpur close Ahmedabad.
• A fake dock yard.
• Evidence of a steed from a far fetched earthenware doll.
• Impressions of fabric on a portion of the seals.
• Evidence of direct exchange contact with Mesopotamia.
• Houses with doors on the fundamental road (the places of all other Harappan urban communities had side sections).
• A ship planned on a seal.
• An earthenware deliver.
• A composition on a container looking like the account of the 'finesse fox' and the 'parched crow' described in Panchatantra.
• Evidence of twofold entombment (covering a male and a female in a solitary grave) found in three graves while in Kalibangan one such grave has been found.
• Evidence of recreations like advanced chess furthermore,
• An instrument for measuring 180, 90, 45 degree edges (the instrument focuses to cutting edge compass).
7. Amri
• Amri likewise gives proof of pre-Harappan settlement. Notwithstanding it does not have the fortifi cation plan of the pre-Harappan stage. A tremendous component of Amri is that it gives the impression of presence of transitional culture amongst pre and post Harappan culture.
• Important discoveries at Amri incorporate the real stays of rhinoceros, hints of Jhangar culture in late or declining Harappan stage and fir sacred places.
8. Chanhu-daro
• Excavations at Chanhu-daro have uncovered three diverse social layers from least to the top being Indus culture, and the pre-Harappan Jhukar culture and the Jhangar culture.
• The site is particularly essential for giving proofs about various Harappan manufacturing plants. These production lines created seals, toys and bone actualizes.
• Through unearthings, the proof of dab producer's shops has become known.
• It was the main Harappan city without a fortification.
• Some surprising fi ndings at Chanhu-daro incorporate bronze figures of bullock truck and ekkas, a little pot proposing an inkwell, impressions of an elephant and a puppy pursuing a feline.
9. Ropar
• Ropar is a Harappan site from where stays of pre-Harappan and Harappan societies have been found.
• Buildings at Ropar were made predominantly of stone and soil.
• Important discoveries at the site incorporate stoneware, trimmings, copper tomahawks, chert cutting edges, earthenware edges, one recorded steatite seal with normal Indus pictographs, a few entombments buried in oval pits and a rectangular mud block chamber.
• There is likewise a confirmation of covering a canine underneath the human entombment (Though the practice was pervasive in Burzahom in Kashmir, it was late in the Harappan setting.
10. Banawali
• Situated in Hissar locale of Haryana, Banawali has given two periods of culture amid its unearthings: the pre-Harappan (Phase I) and the Harappan (Phase II).
• Though Phase II had a place with the Harappan period, chess board or framework example of town arranging was not generally taken after as in other Harappan destinations.
• The streets were not generally straight nor did they cut at right edges.
• It likewise did not have another vital component of the Harappan human advancement – a methodical waste framework.
• High quality grain has been found in unearthings.
• Other vital material remains incorporate earthenware production, steatite seal and a couple earthenware fixing with run of the mill Indus script, ear rings molded like leaves of a peepal tree and earthenware bangles.
11. Surkotda
• Situated in Kutch (Bhuj) area of Gujarat and exhumed by J.P. Joshi in 1972, Surkotda was an essential fortifi ed Harappan settlement.
• This site is essential since it gives the main real stays of stallion bones.
• A graveyard with four pot internments with some human bones has likewise been found.
• A grave has been found in relationship with a major shake (megalithic internment), an uncommon finding of the Harappan culture.
12. Sutkagendor
• Sutkagendor arranged in Sindh (Pakistan) was a vital beach front town of the Indus human advancement.
• Excavations of Sutkagendor have uncovered a twofold division of the township: the Citadel and the Lower City, it is said that Sutkagendor was initially a port which later cut off from the ocean because of beach front inspire.

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